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Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:
Quoted speech It refers to reproducing words exactly as they were originally spoken. !!! Quotation marks are used.
Reported speech It refers to using a noun clause ( “that clause”) to report what someone has said. No quotation marks are used!!!
Tense shift Original tense of the main verb Tense in Reported Speech Present Simple Ilivein Tashkent. Past Simple He said that helivedin Tashkent. Present Continuous Iam lookingfor an apartment to rent. Past Continuous He said that hewas lookingfor an apartment to rent. Present Perfect Ihave finishedmy project on Biology. Past Perfect He said that hehad finishedhis project on Biology. Present Perfect Continuous Ihave been workingon my machine for three years. Past Perfect Continuous He said hehad been workingon his machine for three years.
Original tense of the main verb Tense in Reported Speech Past Simple Ipublishedseveral articles on this issue. Past Perfect He said that hehad publishedseveral articles on that issue. Past Continuous Iwas translatingan article from Spanish. Past Perfect Continuous He said thathe had been translatingan article from Spanish. Past Perfect Ihad submittedmy essay by that time. Past Perfect He said that hehad submittedhis essay by that time. Past Perfect Continuous Ihad been waitingfor her for an hour or so. Past Perfect Continuous He said hehad been waitingfor her for an hour or so.
Original tense of the main verb Tense in Reported Speech Future Tenses (shall/will) I’ll beback in a week. Future-in-the-Past Tenses (should/would) He saidhe’dbe back in a week.
Changes in Reported Speech Personal and possessive pronouns (I, you, he; my, your, his, etc.) “I like your coat.” He said that he liked my coat.
Tense shift “I am looking for a post office.” She said that she was looking for a post office.
Time references (today – that day, yesterday – the day before, tomorrow – the following day/the next day, now – then, next week – the following week, ago-before, last- the previous, etc.) “I’ll see you tomorrow.” He said that he would see us the next day.
Demonstrative pronouns and adverbs (here – there, this – that, these – those) “These books are taken from here.” He said that those books were taken from there.
Word order in questions: (V + S – S + V) “How are you going to deal with this problem?” I asked him how he was going to deal with that problem.
Should, ought to and might are not changed: “I should/ought to/might watch TV.” She said she should/ought to/ might watch TV.
No tense change: Immediate reporting: - What did the teacher just say? I didn’t hear him. - He said (that) he wants us to read Chapter 6.
Later reporting: - I didn’t go to class yesterday. Did Mr. Jones give any assignments? Yes. He said he wanted us to read Chapter 6.
!!! When the reported sentence deals with a general truth, the present tense is retained. “The world is round.” She said that the world is round.
!!! When the reporting verb is simple present, present perfect or future, the main verb is not changed. She says she watches TV every day. She has said that she watches TV every day. She will say that she watches TV every day.
Introducing Reported Speech Type of Sentence Introductory Words Example Statements and negative sentences that “I haven’t seen your friend today.” Mary said(that)she had not seen my friend that day. Questions without a question word (general questions) If, whether “Can you read Arabic?” I asked himif/whetherhe could read Arabic.
Type of Sentence Introductory Words Example Questions with a question word (special questions) A question word “Whathas led to this situation?” I asked himwhathad led to that situation. Imperative sentences to + V, not to + V “Open the door, please.” He asked meto openthe door. “Do not move!” He told menot tomove.