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We can report people’s words by using direct speech or reported speech. ‘I’m tired!’, Helen said. Helen said (that) she was tired.
The main verb of the sentence is usually past ( Tom said that... / I told her that...) and the rest of the sentence is usually past too. Sequence of tenses – if the verb in the main sentence is in the past tense - the other verbs are usually in one of the past tense too.
Present Simple I'm a teacher. Past Simple He said (that) he was a teacher Present Progressive I'm having lunch with my parents. Past Progressive He said (that) he was having lunch with his parents. Past Simple I bought a new car. Past Perfect He said (that) he had bought a new car. Future Simple I will go to the cinema. Future-in-the-Past He said (that) he would go to the cinema. Present Perfect I've been to France three times. Past Perfect He said (that) he had been to France three times.
Read the sentences and turn them in the indirect form. 1. Ralph said, "We have been in the mountains this summer." 2. "We were very happy to spend the weekend at the seaside," said Donald. 3. "We have left the school," said the children. 4. "In 1991 I entered Oxford University," said Henry.
now then /at that time /immediately at that moment today / tonight that day /that night here there this / these that / those tomorrow the following day /the next day the day after next week the following week /the next week the week after yesterday the previous day /the day before last week the previous week /the week before (a year) ago (a year) before /earlier the day before yesterday two days before /earlier the day after tomorrow in two days’ time come go
Direct Speech Indirect/Reported Speech I you we me you us he, she I, she, he, we, they they him, her him, her, us, them them my your our mine yours ours his, her my, his, her, our, their their his, hers mine, his, hers, ours, theirs theirs
Differences between TELL and SAY TELL is always followed by a personal direct object or someone’s name. Harry told me (that) he was hungry. Harry told Sarah (that) he was cold. SAY is immediately followed by a noun clause. She said (that) she was hungry. He said (that) he was feeling tired.
Direct Speech Indirect Speech "What did you do yesterday?” Tell me what you had done yesterday. "When will you come home?” Tell me when you would come home. "Who won the game?" Tell me who had won the game.
Read the sentences and write them in the indirect form. 1. Nancy asked her mother, "What is the weather going to be, rainy or sunny?" 2. The teacher asked her class, "Who will take part in the competition?". 3. Mary asked her friend, "What did you do during your winter holidays?". 4. Lucy asked her new friend, "When were you born?" 5. The tourist asked a policeman, "How can I get to the centre of the city?" 6. Wife asked her husband, "When will you come home from work?" 7. The mother asked her children, "Who will help me to lay the table?"
Direct Speech Indirect Speech "Will the weather be fine tomorrow?” Tell me if the weather would be fine the following day. "Did you have tea or coffee for breakfast?” Tell me whether you had had tea or coffee for breakfast.
Read the sentences and turn them in the indirect form: 1. Kate asked her little brother, "Have you washed your face and hands, Jimmy?" 2. The mother asked her daughter, "Do you want to have tea, Dolly?" 3. The man asked a policeman, "Shall I turn to the right or to the left to get to the museum, officer?" 4. Robert asked his friend, "Is the wind strong?" 5. Ann asked her grandmother, "Will you take me to my Aunt, Granny?"
‘Press the red button!’ ► He told me to press the red button. ‘Don’t answer the phone now!’ ► He asked me not to answer the phone then.
Read the sentences and turn them in the indirect form: 1. Mrs. Roberts said, "Look after your sister, Ann."' 2. The parents said to their little daughter, "Don't cross the street when the light is red." 3. The teacher said, "Please, hand in your exercise-book." 4. The boy said to his friend, "Come to see me on Sunday, will you?" 5. The mother said to her son, "Write down a list of the things you will have to buy." 6. The teacher said, "Go on reading, Ann."