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The youth movement. The skinheads
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A particle of history. Have you ever met the groups of young people with shaved heads wearing the black jeans and jackets without collars, army boots and the badges of slavery confederation? They are skinheads. Nobody writes about them but the skinheads became the legend among the adolescents in different cities. Adults don’t try to notice them like the representatives of law. That’s why it’s one of the most important problem nowadays. Where did this movement come from? When and where did the skins appear? I think, majority of our population don’t know the answers on these questions. The first skinheads appeared in England in 1968-69s. They didn’t have any in common with the rebellious skinheads of our generation. They differed a lot. the skins of “the first wave” were the British worker’s subculture. They came up against an official bourgeois culture and counterculture of 60s years. The young from worker’s districts considered that the British counterculture was a desire of mother’s darlings from the middle class families and the rich families too. It was the entertainment for the rich to pretend that they were against bourgeois society. The skinheads chose the own style of clothes to cut a dash out of crowds. The most interesting fact is that the first skinheads loved and respect the black people. They listened to black’s music like west –Indian and Jamaica’s style of music called blue beat in England. The favorite singers were nigroes. Normally the skins discovered and made Bob Marley the world star. The black men and the skinheads lived together worked at the same plants, studied at the same schools. They fought with the bourgeois children together.
The second wave The skinheads of “the second wave” existed in England in the end of 70s years. It was a product of punk’s corruption from one side and the result of economical crisis from the other. Living in difficult time during the unemployed period among the rebellions and violence the skinheads began to fight with the same adolescents of another districts at the streets. Since the end of the 70s years in Britain the fascist ideology had been acting. Fascists became an instance for skinheads quickly. They began an active work with them. The fascists gave money for arranging skin-clubs and skins started to sing the frank racist songs, created own music in the style “oi”. Soon they changed into national skins. Their lotto was “Keep Britain White”. Later the such subculture made a progress in many European countries and the USA too. The main place of this movement in Europe was Germany. In differ from British and American skins who simply beat the black and Asian men the German were famous of killing. Very quickly German skin society converted into the most political group.
Russian skinheads The first Russian skinheads appeared in the beginning of 90s years in Moscow. They were about ten people in the capital and 5 in Saint-Petersburg. Their behavior was quietly making the demonstrations of themselves in the centre of the city. The first skins were a clean product of adolescent imitated the west model. It had been lasting until the beginning of 1994 Suddenly in this time the skins had been becoming numerous and noticeable phenomenon for several weeks. Outwardly it was connected with the political occurrences in the country showing the young generation that the most convenient argument in any discussion was violence. Police’s terror in the streets of Moscow, ethnical riddance made big influence on the young minds. Having seen how police and solders robbed and beat by foot the people of unsuitable looks with impunity and heard the “patriotic talks” of Moscow’s government the bad adolescents of sleeping districts and from unfortunate families found the samples for imitation quickly. And the Chechnya's war assisted the growth of skins either. Nobody fought with them. As long as the police was getting rid of Caucasians the skinheads like cowards chose their victims among the residents from Middle Asia or from the countries of “the third world”. At first they were black men and Asian people. Historical centers of skins’ movement in Russia were Moscow, Saint-Petersburg and Novgorod. Moscow’s skins set upon the Africans and the Indians, Saint-Petersburg’s skins attacked the Africans, the Neapolitans, the Chinese, in Novgorod the victims became the residents of Middle Asian like the refugees from Tadzhikistan. Everywhere especially in Novgorod the police had normal relations with skins that’s why they didn’t make the criminal affairs against them. The racial terror was thriving.
The skins’ growth in Russia In the atmosphere of permission the skins’ movement had been growing without restrictions and reached the noticeable size. Nowadays it goes on. For example, there were 3500-4000 skins in Moscow in 1999 Without doubt not only political events impacted the skins prosperity. Two important factors made the base for rapid growth and skins existence among the young in Russia. They were economical crisis and the break up of educational system. Since 1991 disastrous economical reductions had changed millions of the Russians into unemployed people. Formally many of them weren’t considered to be unemployed but in fact they existed. The enterprises also stopped to produce goods working 1-2 days a week or 2-3 month a year. The laborers couldn’t get the salary for a year. Majority population having middle incomes became the beggars. All of that was the reason of psychological catastrophe. For decades of soviet experience people had got accustomed to ensuring occupation, state’s power in education, health care system and other social programs. For example, symbolic price on the main products, childish goods, residents service, public transports. Having lost an usual lifestyle the Russians were become wild very quickly. Crimes, alcohol and drugs filled the country. Parents thought how to survive in such a world and didn’t pay attention to the children’s upbringing. The rough houses and violence in the family was normal occurrence.
Nowadays At the same time with the ruins of economy the break-up of education and upbringing in Russia was going on and leading to the second psychological catastrophe. The consequences of it was a new Russian generation. The main feature for them was the disconnection with traditions, common values and social rules. While parents were becoming wild their children are becoming wild too. In differ from the adults who were trying to keep family and decide some problems the children of reforms without of social experience of growing-up were turning into head of amoral, selfish, greedy, evil and dull society. Of course, such atmosphere assisted in growing the adolescent delinquency, alcoholism, drugs, epidemic of illnesses like AIDS and others. The system of out school education was removed. The houses of culture, the pioneer’s houses which took up the leisure of pupils found the talented boys and girls helped them to develop their abilities disappeared. Unfortunately, organizations’ premises were bought by businessmen who rebuilt it into expensive night clubs, casinos, restaurant for the rich. The children’s clubs were eliminated and passed away. Pupils were represented by themselves at free time after school and became the victims of criminal world. A big amount of youth bangs created in cities which after a while turned into the skinheads bangs. Every bang came up against “strangers” and without doubt the black men were strangers for them too. The Russian skinheads are a products of social changes in the country. We see that the skins’ bang appeared nominally in the big developed cities, where the main wealth had bee concentrating for the last years. Looking at the officials and criminals the poor adolescents were jealous and hated them, but they were afraid to set upon new Russian businessmen due to their security.
Why led their hatred to the most accessible people- foreigners. In the town the plants and factories suffered from the deep crisis connected with these enterprises. The skins weren’t there, but the varied youth’s bangs were. In theses towns all population was poor. There weren’t any reasons to hate new businessmen who didn’t live there. the hatred was summoned by boriness and jobless life. our skins imitated the western model of clothes. The specific treat of Russian skins is love the slavery confederation’s flag put on the sleeve or on the back of their braziers. Nowadays it is also very popular to wear the stripes like a cross or a portray of Hitler, number 88 or letters WP (means White Power). The skins usually don’t carry any weapons and guns with themselves because they don’t want to come sb’s attention but they use the belts with metal buckles in the fights and battles. The latest “cry” of skins-fashion is decoration their belts with bonds which make these knuckle- duster very dangerous. Our skins are adherents of musical style “oi” like western nation-skins. Western red-skins generally listen to punk music, post-punk, trash or art-rock, jazz-rock. Many of them prefer Pink Floyd and Ganry. Majority of them create musical skin’s group in Moscow as “Conquest”, “White dog”, Vandal”, “crack” and others. But the most famous group is punk oi group “Terror”. Nominally members of “Terror” establish the trends in Russian musical skin culture. Only two groups from Saint-Petersburg and Jaroslavl are opponents for Muscovites. At first they were called “Tottenkopf” but later in 1996 year “Tottenkopf” was shorten like TNF and after several time this abbreviation was interpreted like “Terror National Front”. The texts of skins’ songs as usual are quite primitive and don’t make a strong impression despite their aggression.
the skins songs There are many Caucasian Nigroes raised their heads, But for our streets, For our girls in the disco Against nigro and Asian For the Russian nation. Neither policy nor perfect-patriot Skinheads go forward! Black bomber, evil wind Skin head. There won’t be mosque There will be Russian scene Kill without forgiving All Caucasian’s things We are for Russian order For our children’s lifes. Without doubt such a text is a reason beginning the criminal affair, but where anybody tried to take to court one of these groups. This text in comparison with another is very moderate and a sample of high “literature”.
Our skins deal with their western “brothers” actively. The skins’ press also exists: the magazines “White resistance”, “Stop”, “I’m white”, “Street fighter”. The ultra right sites in Internet specially are considered for skins including “Russian mirror” of American skinheads site “Storm front”. Major skins are gathered in little bangs the place of their living or study (80% per cent of them are pupils from the 9th-11th forms, students of colleges, or the unemployed who aren’t political organizations. But in Moscow two political severe skinheads organizations work called “Skin legion” and “ Blood and Honor”- Russian (have 100-150 members). Members of each group make gossips that hundreds of people join them. Many other simple skins believe it and are jealious and respect them. In spite of them there are few decent skins group for example “Russian aim” and nation-skin-girls group “Russian girls”