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Differentiated nouns

DIFFERENTIATED NOUNS Made by: Bokach Olga, REPH-31 Checked by: Kakzhanova F.A...
Differentiated nouns are nouns where ending -s (in plural number) changes the...
On the surface of semantic relations, the meaning of the singular will be und...
However, alongside of these semantically unequivocal correlations, there exis...
This becomes clear when we take for comparison such forms as potato (one item...
As a result of the comparison we conclude that the broader sememic mark of th...
On the other hand, there are semantic varieties of the plural forms that diff...
Ilyish says that “the difference between the two numbers may increase to such...
Some examples of differentiated nouns
Address обращение; речь; официальное выступление Addresses (уст.) ухаживание
Arm рука Arms вооружение военная служба война
Board доска Boards подмостки, сцена; сценическая профессия
Bone кость (часть скелета позвоночных) Bones скелет; костяк; человек; тело ос...
Element хим. элемент элемент, составная часть Elements основы, азы непогода (...
Fundamental основное правило; принцип Fundamentals основы
Gut кишка; (разг.) брюхо Guts (разг.) внутреннее cодержание (разг.) мужество,...
Head голова Heads руда лицевая сторона монеты (с изображением головы), орёл
Heart сердце, душа Hearts черви (масть)
ill вред, зло ills неприятности, проблемы
iron железо irons кандалы, оковы
Kennel собачья конура свора собак Kennels псарня; собачий питомник
Land земля, суша почва страна; государство Lands поместья
Legality законность; легальность следование закону Legalities обязательства, ...
Letter буква письмо Letters литература
Liberty свобода Liberties (юр.) вольности, привилегии
Light свет; освещение Lights мнение, оценка; система принципов
Line линия, черта, штрих строка контур экватор Lines план, чертеж строй (солд...
Manner манера, поведение Manners воспитанность, умение себя вести
Occasion случай, событие Occasions (уст.) дела
Point точка, пункт вопрос Points достоинства, преимущества пуанты
Correspondencia to predicate Both singular and plural They looked at me like ...
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Differentiated nouns

Описание презентации по отдельным слайдам:

1 слайд

DIFFERENTIATED NOUNS Made by: Bokach Olga, REPH-31 Checked by: Kakzhanova F.A. Karaganda 2010

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Differentiated nouns are nouns where ending -s (in plural number) changes the semantic meaning of a word.

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On the surface of semantic relations, the meaning of the singular will be understood as simply "one", as opposed to the meaning of the plural as "many" in the sense of "more than one". This is apparently obvious for such correlations as book — books, lake — lakes and the like.

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However, alongside of these semantically unequivocal correlations, there exist plurals and singulars that cannot be fully accounted for by the above ready-made approach.

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This becomes clear when we take for comparison such forms as potato (one item of the vegetables) and potatoes (food), paper (material) and papers (notes or documents), sky (the vault of heaven) and skies (the same sky taken as a direct or figurative background), etc.

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As a result of the comparison we conclude that the broader sememic mark of the plural, or "plurality" in the grammatical sense, should be described as the potentially dismembering reflection of the structure of the referent, while the sememic mark of the singular will be understood as the non-dismembering reflection of the structure of the referent, i.e. the presentation of the referent in its indivisible entireness.

7 слайд

On the other hand, there are semantic varieties of the plural forms that differ from one another in their plural quality as such. The extreme point of this semantic scale is marked by the lexicalisation of the plural form, i.e. by its serving as a means of rendering not specificational, but purely notional difference in meaning. Cf. colours as a "flag", attentions as "wooing", pains as "effort", quarters as "abode", etc.

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Ilyish says that “the difference between the two numbers may increase to such a degree that the plural form develops a completely new meaning which the singular has not got at all. Thus, for example, the plural form colours has the meaning 'banner' which is restricted to the plural (e. g. to serve under the colours of liberty). In a similar manner, the plural attentions has acquired the meaning 'wooing' (pay attentions to a young lady). Since, in these cases, a difference in lexical meaning develops between the plural and the singular, it is natural to say that the plural form has been lexicalised. What is essential from the grammatical viewpoint is the very fact that a difference in meaning which is purely grammatical in its origins is apt under certain conditions to be overshadowed by a lexical difference.”

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Some examples of differentiated nouns

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Address обращение; речь; официальное выступление Addresses (уст.) ухаживание

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Arm рука Arms вооружение военная служба война

12 слайд

Board доска Boards подмостки, сцена; сценическая профессия

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Bone кость (часть скелета позвоночных) Bones скелет; костяк; человек; тело останки, мощи

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Element хим. элемент элемент, составная часть Elements основы, азы непогода (ветер, дождь)

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Fundamental основное правило; принцип Fundamentals основы

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Gut кишка; (разг.) брюхо Guts (разг.) внутреннее cодержание (разг.) мужество, характер, сила воли

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Head голова Heads руда лицевая сторона монеты (с изображением головы), орёл

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Heart сердце, душа Hearts черви (масть)

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ill вред, зло ills неприятности, проблемы

20 слайд

iron железо irons кандалы, оковы

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Kennel собачья конура свора собак Kennels псарня; собачий питомник

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Land земля, суша почва страна; государство Lands поместья

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Legality законность; легальность следование закону Legalities обязательства, налагаемые законом

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Letter буква письмо Letters литература

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Liberty свобода Liberties (юр.) вольности, привилегии

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Light свет; освещение Lights мнение, оценка; система принципов

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Line линия, черта, штрих строка контур экватор Lines план, чертеж строй (солдат) стихи, поэзия

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Manner манера, поведение Manners воспитанность, умение себя вести

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Occasion случай, событие Occasions (уст.) дела

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Point точка, пункт вопрос Points достоинства, преимущества пуанты

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Correspondencia to predicate Both singular and plural They looked at me like I was nuts. The bizarre rantings in the notes left behind by the serial killer convinced the police that these guys were nuts.